Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Toefl Essay Samples For RussiansIt is very much important for you to select toefl essay samples for Russians for a recent PhD dissertation. The essay sample is the most important material for you to compose your dissertation since it will be the basis of your academic credibility. Besides, if you fail to provide a satisfactory dissertation, you might not get the job for yourself.Scholarship requires you to present your thesis based on your research. A thesis includes the knowledge that you have acquired in the course of the year. If you do not come up with a suitable dissertation based on your research, you will not be able to get a postgraduate scholarship. It would be a big blow to your career and financial status.It is true that toefl essay samples for Russians is one of the most preferred essay examples for the current Russian PhD dissertation that will help you in boosting your academic standing. However, before you make a final decision on your dissertation, it is very importan t to know the key factors for a PhD dissertation.First, if you are currently studying for your PhD, you need to prove your academic proficiency. So, you should learn the techniques of writing a dissertation or the key points of Russian Literature. Moreover, you need to be prepared for submitting your dissertation and you need to go through a lot of reading materials regarding your topic.Second, you must consider your recent past. You should show a clear view of the developments in the Russian culture over the years. If you would like to submit your thesis on the culture, you must also prepare something related to the topic.Finally, you must have an analytical writing style that would suit your thesis. In addition, you must have a detailed outline of your writing to make the manuscript looking attractive to the readers.There are many more aspects in which you need to do something more if you want to finish your dissertation in a short time. You must have to know these important facto rs before going to the place for the preparation of the thesis.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
The financial crisis was something very few people saw coming. We were in what seemed to be a good economic place before it, the housing market appeared to be healthy and our economy seemed strong. The financial crisis rocked not only the American people and the United States economy to its core, but the rest of the world as well. It was on the borderline of being a true catastrophic event. A myriad of unforeseeable events occurred leaving policy makers around the globe in a plight, reeling to figure out what actions to take to keep the global economy from collapsing. The financial crisis was mainly caused by the housing bubble and the domino effect that put in place. Our entire housing market was propped up on these terrible mortgages that were hidden within huge groups of mortgages. These groups of mortgages were rated higher than the content within deserved. It created a false sense of security in mortgage bonds. The banks were backed by these terrible CDOs and MBSs. The rating ag encies falsely rating these CDOs and MBSs worsened the issue. People no longer knew what they were investing in, because the erroneous ratings given by the rating agencies. It was no longer just our housing market being propped up on these subprime mortgages; it was now most of our large financial firms. Ergo, a large portion of our economy being propped up on mortgage pools that were bound to be defaulted on by the masses. Surely enough, the housing bubble did burst and left our economy inShow MoreRelatedFinancial Crisis Of 2008, The United States Economy1086 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn 2001, the U.S. economy experienced a mild, short-lived recession. Although the economy nicely withstood terrorist attacks, the bust of the dotcom bubble, and accounting scandals, the fear of recession really preoccupied everybody s minds. http://www.wallstreetoasis.com/financial-crisis-overview Financial crisis of 2008, started in 2001 after the U.S. economy went through Ã¢â¬Å"a mild, short-lived recessionÃ¢â¬ (Financial Crisis 2007/2008 Overview). To start things off, the crisis happened because ofRead MoreThe World s Economy Was Devastated1732 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe western worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was devastated. With the crash of the United States Wall Street, the realm drove into what is now known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Great RecessionÃ¢â¬ . Its neighbour to the north, Canada also felt these affects as unemployment and poverty grew. After a decade of despair, the massive rise in government spending for the Second World War and the reductions in taxes, the economies returned to prosper. With decades of industrialization, population growth and surging economies, the Western WorldRead MoreSubprime Mortgage Crisis : An Example Of A Financial Crisis1324 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesQuestion1. Subprime mortgage crisis is an example of a financial crisis that affected global marke ts worldwide. Give another example of a financial crisis in your discussions below. The subprime mortgage financial crisis which happened in 2008 to 2009.this crisis leaves the world in frightened. Therefore financial economy is totally unable to regain on the same situation. However to control the economy crisis and to avoid in the future for such situation we need to review and need to avoid thisRead MoreWhat Is A Financial Crisis?1671 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis a financial crisis? According to Mishkin and Eakins (2015), Ã¢â¬Å"a financial crisis occurs when information flows in financial markets experience a particularly large disruption, with the result that financial frictions and credit spreads increase sharply and financial markets stop functioning. Then economic activity will collapseÃ¢â¬ (p.165). Throughout history the United States of America has experienced six significant financial crises. Each crisis left the United States of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is disarrayRead MoreThe World Experienced A Tremendous Financial Crisis Essay1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 P agestremendous financial crisis which rooted from the U.S housing market; moreover, it is considered by many economists as one of the worst recession since the Great Depression in 1930s. After posing a huge effect on the U.S economy, the financial crisis expanded to Europe and the rest of the world. It brought governments down, ruined economies, crumble financial corporations and impoverish individual lives. For example, the financial crisis has resulted in the collapse of massive financial institutionsRead MoreThe 2008 Financial Crisis Essay1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesintroduction The 2008 financial crisis led to a sharp increase in mortgage foreclosures primarily subprime leading to a collapse in several mortgage lenders. Recurrent foreclosures and the harms of subprime mortgages were caused by loose lending practices, housing bubble, low interest rates and extreme risk taking (Zandi, 2008). Additionally, expert analysis on the 2008 financial crisis assert that the cause was also due to erroneous monetary policy moves and poor housing policies. The federal governmentRead MoreLessons Of Resilience : What We Can Learn From The Subprime Mortgage Crisis Essay1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLessons in Resilience: What We Can Learn from the Subprime Mortgage Crisis Like all financial markets, the United States housing market is characterized by its cyclical nature. Markets have ups and downs, peaks and troughs, and without variation, the housing market would not contribute to economic activity in the way that it does. Still, while fluctuations are a necessary and often beneficial truth, housing disasters and market crashes are crises that should and can be avoided with proper foresightRead MoreEssay on Mortgage Crisis on Money Supply1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesImpact of the Mortgage Crisis on Money Supply in the US AMESIA HARRIS FINANCE 364 PROFESSOR CROSS Impact of the Mortgage Crisis on Money Supply in the US This paper presents the effects of expansionary monetary policy to macro economic variables in the economy. The United States of America recorded a mortgage crisis since 2007. The financial sector issued out massive amounts of money to individuals to acquire homes. This was in line with government campaigns for equitable housing of US citizensRead MoreExploring the Contagion and Its Effect on Macroeconomic Conditions1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfeaturing subprime mortgages, began to struggle. The result was a credit crisis, followed by substantial government intervention in the industry. This crisis then spread throughout much of the rest of the world. The contagion effect was driven by factors such as financial institution connectedness and exposure to the US economy. This paper will explore the contagion, and its effect on macroeconomic conditions both in the United States and around the world. Body A contagion is defined as a significantRead MoreThe contemporary Great Recession and the global financial crisis1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessubprime crisis in 2007 that it is commonly believed to have led to the Great recession and to the present global financial crisis, these issues have been subject to much research. In fact, no one can claim that the Great Recession and the global financial crisis have been under-researched. In fact, the new world recession has been analysed from different angles and perspectives. Historians, economists, financial experts, psychologists, anthropologists and other experts in academic, financial, economic
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Kyle Mann California History Mon-Wed 11:10-12:30 Effects of Manifest Destiny Conquering this new foreign land was the plan for English settlers that sailed here and landed on to the eastern coast of America. After many years had passed, John O Sullivan, a democratic leader, named this progressive movement Manifest destiny in 1845. The term Manifest Destiny originated in the 1840s. It expressed the belief that it was US Americans mission to expand their civilization and institutions across the breadth of North America. Manifest Destiny wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just an idea to have all the land from one ocean to another. It was a cause every man, woman, and child believed in, if you were from the America. Most Americans truly believed that Manifest Destiny was godÃ¢â¬â¢s plan that we as Americans will conquer this land and make it our home. It was one of Americas great causes that everyone could support and help achieve. This movement inspired thousands of the U.S. eastern settlers to travel westward. While the idea of moving to western America was in everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, there were many events that occurred such as: The Mexican-American war, the gold rush, and how the civil war. These events helped morph and shape our country into what it is today. While the current US Americans who were in California all got there traveling by sea. A man named Jedediah Smith made great advances in getting us closer to California. Author Ã¢â¬Å"Jedediah Smith and his companions were the first US Americans to document theShow MoreRelatedJohn O Sulliv Manifest Destiny1164 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAmericans wanted to head west, this mindset was given the name of Ã¢â¬Å"Manifest DestinyÃ¢â¬ by John OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivan. Manifest Destiny was a term that was prevalent during the 19th century. It expressed the belief that AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s mission was to expand their civilization across North America; this expansion would create liberty and economic progress through territorial gain. President Jefferson, Madison and Monroe, all collectively believed in the JeffersonianÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset, these presidents encouraged such movement;
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction Ã¢â¬Å"Human resource management (HRM) is the managing of human skills and talents to make sure they are used effectively and in alignment with an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goalsÃ¢â¬ (Youssef, 2012). The primary role of human resource management is to plan, develop, and order policies and programmers designed to make prompt use of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s human resources. It is that part of management which is concerned with the people at work and with their relationship within an organization. I currently work for a Human Resource agency in my town as a Workforce Development Manager. I do have some responsibilities as a human resource manager, but I am limited to some. The human resource aspect in any organization is a very sensitive issue which shouldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In other words the regulation has ensured that the employees are given equal employment opportunities. By offering equal opportunities the organization makes it possible for employees to perform their job duties in a workplace free from harassment and discrimination. Human Resource Planning, Recruitment, and Selection Human resource planning, resource planning, recruitment, and selection are the recruitment and selection process. Your human resources department has the support and knowledge of employment specialists who aid hiring managers with the measures to guarantee your organization leaders are making the right hiring decisions for the company. Sourcing candidates, reviewing and tracking applicants, conducting interviews and selection for employment are pieces of the recruitment and selection process. Human Resources Development (HRD) HRD is the part of human resource management that particularly has to deal with training and development of the employees. Human resource development includes training an individual after they are hired. The training provides opportunities to learn new skills, providing resources that are beneficial for the employee s tasks, and any other developmental activities. Compensation and Benefits Compensation and benefits is not just about the pay but it also includes incentives, or rewards that the employees are offered by
If I ruled the world: Ã¢â¬Å"If I ruled the worldÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ; am I the only one thatÃ¢â¬â¢s ever wondered what itÃ¢â¬â¢d be like? I feel like itÃ¢â¬â¢s one of those passing thoughts that seem to cross your mind, like why donÃ¢â¬â¢t English singers have an accent when they sing, or how the quote Ã¢â¬Å"head over heelsÃ¢â¬ originated; since weÃ¢â¬â¢re head over heels normally? But, what I mean, is whenever you listen to the news on TV or on the radio and hear about an epidemic striking the world like the H1N1 flu or another war, donÃ¢â¬â¢t you ever feel like you could do a better job taking care of the earth? Right now it seems like everywhere around us, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s something terrible thatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening. Whether it is the war in Afghanistan or the clear-cutting of our precious rainforests, itÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Having one nation throughout would also unite the people currently living on planet earth. There wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a Ã¢â¬Å"topÃ¢â¬ nation, or a Ã¢â¬Å"most powerfulÃ¢â¬ country, there wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be any hate stirring among the countries, which was also a cause for a more recent war between the United States and Afghanistan. And while it seems unrealistic and uncivilized to have one country throughout, with no government whatsoever, the world would be ruled by the people. There would be one government for the whole world, with one ruling judge, yours truly, and a jury of people elected by the public, and the opinions of the people will indeed be heard. The major decisions that would need to be made would be made with the help of the public. Thus, the world is ruled by the people themselves. While enforcing the freedom of expression, I would completely enforce the freedom of choice. It shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t even be a question. The gay community should have every right to marry. In fact, 1 in 3 heterosexual marriages have ended in divorce, whereas slightly less than 1% of gay marriages have failed, people can marry their first cousins, a celebrity can stay married for a mere 72 days, hello Kim Kardashian, but two people of the same sex that love each other cannot? In my opinion, illegalizing gay marriage is completely pointless, what would they do if it was legalized? Burn the world to ashes? No, they would marry the people they love, which in my opinion should be aShow MoreRelated`` Apple Removes All American Civil War Games From The App Store Because Of The Confederate Flag1382 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbeginning to tarnish the first amendment rights of people in the constitution. In 1989 The Supreme Court of the United States decided on Texas v. Johnson which ruled in favor of the first amendment. Exercising the first amendment can be controversial; however, the censorship of people is unnecessary and it conflicts with the principle of free speech, which is a key aspect of American culture. In the past few years, during the holiday season, Ã¢â¬Å"happy holidaysÃ¢â¬ can be heard instead of the traditional Ã¢â¬Å"merryRead MoreThe Armada Of The Spanish Armada1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesQueen Elizabeth I The Armada Portrait Buy at Allposters.com The defeat of the Spanish Armada is one of the most famous events in English history. It was arguably Queen Elizabeth s finest hour. For years she had been hailed as the English Deborah, the saviour of the English people, and now it seemed that this is what she had really become. She was now Bellona, the goddess of war, and in triumph she had led her people to glory, defeating the greatest power in the 16th century world. Spain was theRead MoreSpeech Is Nothing More Than Incorrect English1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCartoonists and Linguists alike have made their fair share of jokes on this word comprised of Ã¢â¬Å"ebonyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"phonicsÃ¢â¬ , which is used when referring to the speech of African American English speakers (Pullum, 321). While some would say that this variety of speech is nothing more than incorrect English, others would argue that African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is in fact a language on its own, complete with rules, complexities, and patterns (Pullum, 321). The opposing sides on this issue have sparkedRead MoreEssay about English as the Spoken Language in America1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEnglish as the Spoken Language in America In the beginning, this country was a melting pot. Many different people, from many different countries and ethnic groups, speaking in many different tongues came to America. English arose as the predominant language of the United States. Over time, people realized the importance of staying in touch with their cultural backgrounds, including the language of their native countries. The main problem presented now lies in communication and interaction withRead MoreThe Amendment Of The Bill Of Right : Freedom Of Religion And Freedom1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe Bill of Rights. There were historical backgrounds to guarantee the freedom. Although they are ruled in the Constitution, it is not easy to protect the diversity and individual freedom in the society, and not all conflicts have been settled today. Yet, people are in a process to improve democratic society which is not a finished product, and freedom in all its forms improves itself over time. I am going to explain two major libert ies in the First Amendment of the Bill of Right: the freedom ofRead MoreEssay about Queen Elizabeth I: The Most Glorious Ruler of England 1074 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesout of destitution, and into one of its most glorious periods, the Elizabethan Age. Though, she suffered greatly before crowning; throughout her rule as Queen, England was reformed and fortified to be one of the most powerful countries in the known world. Elizabeth was born in the Greenwich Palace on September 7, 1533 to Anne Boleyn and King Henry VIII of England. (Stated on page 1 of Crompton, Samuel Willard. Queen Elizabeth and Englands Golden Age. Chelsea House, 2005. Print.) She was born intoRead MoreThe Rights Of The United States1701 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgreat deal of emphasis in making sure the country fulfilled one requirement: the United States needed to be the living image of freedom. This image of freedom needed to exist not only as a geographical and political entity, meaning free from the English, but as a society as well, and that is why it opted for a democracy as a system to rule, to let the citizens be able to live freely. Despite the obvious issues presented in the country on that moment that we might call hypocrite, like slavery; theRead MoreDbq: the Enlightenment Essay1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrights would not exist if it were for the Enlightenment. Philosophers such as Montesquieu, Rousseau, Locke, and others lead to many great changes. These ideas were used by some to challenge absolute monarchies. An absolute monarchy is a government ruled by one ruler. These ideas also impacted both government and society. Some of the ideas of the Enlightenment were used to challenge absolute monarchy. One example is given in Document # 1, Montesquieu who was a French philosopher during the EnlightenmentRead MoreThe Revolutions Of Thomas Hobbes And Charles I In The 17th Century1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages including a civil war. The English Parliament felt that the King was subject to the same laws everyone else in the country was obligated to adhere to. Men like Thomas Hobbes and John Locke flourished during these times, their political insights inspiring the revolutionaries in Parliament. The revolutionaries believed that the King, James I in the beginning, was stifling their rights to life, liberty, and property. Once this King met his end and a new king, Charles I, was brought in, the same strugglesRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Julius Caesar 884 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBerner Mrs. Hillard Honors English 10 - F 15 January 2015 Julius Caesar Discussion 1.) BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ trust in others and his love of Rome are his greatest faults. His tragic flaw is the trust he places in others. Brutus is easily swayed to trust Cassius when he plots to kill Caesar. Cassius uses his cunning to trick Brutus into believing Caesar is ambitious and that he is killing Caesar for the good of Rome. Cassius says to Brutus, Ã¢â¬Å"Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow world like a Colossus, and we petty
Question: Discuss about theNursingfor Tysons Diagnosis. Answer: There are two major cues that are clearly explicit in this case study to ascertain that Tyson is suffering from testicular cancer. It is ideal to look at the aforesaid prognosis in different level. One, it is very explicit that Tyson has a lump, on his testicle. Similarly, he does experience some element of pain on his lower party of abdomen. Having a lump at the testicular part of the body is a clear indication or rather the symptoms of testicular cancer (Yarbro, Wujcik Gobel, 2011). The same situation is augmented by the fact that there is abdominal pain. This are the primary diagnosis of this type of cancer among masculine gender. It is ideal to state that this type of cues may be able to guide the doctor effectively to make appropriate decision of taking Tyson for scanning to fully ascertain the situation before taking any decision. In nutshell it cats as a guiding tool for the medic to advice accordingly. Describe the Anatomy and Pathology of Tyson's Condition Testicular cancer is a type of disease that affects the cells on the testicle part which in turn makes it to be abnormal on either one side or both. This case is mostly conspicuous among people aged between 20 and 35 years. There are two major type of cancer of testicles namely nonseminomas and seminomas. Some of its basic symptoms and signs are swelling of the scrotum (Mossanen, Izard, Wright, Harper, Porter, Daratha, Holt Gore, 2014). Painful testicular especially the lower part. However, it is prudent to underscore that family history may also be used to determine the likelihood of this type of cancer descending to a particular member of the family. If a member in the family happen to have had it in the family, there are high chances of this cancer occurring in any male individual within the family. It has been observed that treatment of testicular cancer may lead to infertility and thereby it is very important for the patient to be fully are of this so as to be well prepared of the outcome of the said treatment. The exact cause of cancerous on the testicle is not well established, nonetheless, there are more projections of what night be the cause. It is viewed that the abnormalities at the congenital such as penile, kidney are attributed to this. The patient himself may detect this by observing the physical appearance of their testicle basing on various factors that are explicated here. Remarkably, the diagnosis of testicular cancer may be arrived by carrying out ultrasound, testing of blood in the bid of measuring makers of tumor (Souhami Tobias, 2005). Similarly, another approach is the use of biopsy of the tissues on the testicular. In order to avert, the cancerous infections from spreading to the rest of the body part, chemotherapy, radiation therapy may be carried, however they have their own side effect since it leads to infertility and most importantly reduces the sexual functioning. The identification of stages of cancer helps the medic to know ho w best to treat the patient. It is important to note that there are four stages of this cancer. This stages ranges from mild to the most advanced cancer that is stage 0 to 3. Tysons Treatment for Testicular Cancer Current practices and alternative of treating testicular cancer is the adoption and use of chemotherapy as an adjuvant treatment. This is mostly preferable above radiation in that it uses a single dose of carboplatin which is generally administered after every three weeks. This has seen most of the patient recovering well without much side effect as compared to other approaches which has great effect to the patient (Miaskowski Buchsel, 1999). Upon treatment of this cancer, it would be ideal for the patient to have periodic check up to ascertain that the recurrence of the same is not possible. The nature of this cancer determines which appropriate therapy is effective to cure it. There are various nursing practices that may be employed in aiding the patient suffering from cancer of testicles. Physical Factors It is incumbent to note that the cancer treatment results to physical changes which at time is difficult for one to cope up with or rather deal with it. The person undergoing this treatment will be left with a very conspicuous scar on their body. Also continuous exposure to this radiation or even chemotherapy does affect ones sex life. Psychosocial Factors One major changes are that ones self esteem may be incredibly affected and as such make someone to start shying off from the rest. This may in the long run affect ones relationship with those around him such as friends and relatives (Groenwald, 1998). There is also an element of fear of unknown especially most men find it difficult to explain this situation to their wives since they fear that they may be left for their impotency due to the treatment they are subjected to. Cultural Factors Practically, it becomes difficult for such patient due to some cultural notion that every family ought to be characterized by descendandtry. This especially becomes challenging if the said patient has not net sired a child. The person may be render by other useless since his sex life is not functional (Russell, 2014). Therefore, it would be important for Tyson to be taken through series of counselling so as to fully understand his current situation and admit the situation the way it is. Reference List GROENWALD, S. L. (1998).A Clinical guide to cancer nursing: a companion to Cancer nursing, fourth edition. Boston, Mass, Jones and Bartlett. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truescope=sitedb=nlebkdb=nlabkAN=25647. MIASKOWSKI, C., BUCHSEL, P. C. (1999).Oncology nursing: assessment and clinical care. St. Louis, Mosby. MOSSANEN, M., IZARD, J., WRIGHT, J. L., HARPER, J. D., PORTER, M. P., DARATHA, K. B., HOLT, S. K., GORE, J. L. (2014). Identification of underserved areas for urologic cancer care.Cancer.120, 1565-1571. RUSSELL SS. (2014). Testicular cancer: overview and implications for health care providers.Urologic Nursing.34. SOUHAMI, R. L., TOBIAS, J. S. (2005).Cancer and its management. Malden, Mass, Blackwell Pub. https://www.dawsonera.com/depp/reader/protected/external/AbstractView/S9780470994870. YARBRO, C. H., WUJCIK, D., GOBEL, B. H. (2011).Cancer nursing: principles and practice. Sudbury, Mass, Jones and Bartlett Publishers. https://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=3319239.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
When a firm changes prices, the effect on profits is more important than the effect on revenue. There is a simple formula to calculate the critical Price Elasticity of demand which is just sufficient to maintain the contribution to overheads and profits. This will be greater than that required to maintain revenue. A common issue in business and in business studies is whether a firm should change the prices at which products are offered. The calculations begin with estimates of the reaction of customers to the new prices. This reaction is represented as Price Elasticity of Demand (PED), the ratio of the proportionate changes in volume and price. Students are always told and some students even remember that Elastic Demand (PED gt;1) means more revenue from a lower price and less from a higher one; and Inelastic Demand (PED But who wants the same revenue with lower profits? Any change in price will have a much bigger impact, proportionately, on the contribution per item for the firm than on the asking price to the customer. We will write a custom essay sample on Elasticity on Demand, Breakeven Analysis and Pricing Decisions or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It follows that an increase in price may succeed in raising profits, even though revenue falls; and that a lower price may reduce profits even though revenue increases. So the critical question is not whether the PED is greater or less than one, but whether it is sufficiently high (for a lower price) or sufficiently low (for a price increase) to improve profits. The critical level of PED can be found by an application of breakeven analysis. We can take the current level of contribution to overheads and profit; and ask what the volume (units sold) must be to give the same level of contribution at the alternative price. Having found this critical volume, we can then compute what the PED would be to give us this volume at the new price, compared with the existing price and quantity. This then will be the Critical Price Elasticity of Demand (CPED). If we are raising prices, any PED less than CPED will increase profits; if we are lowering price, we want PED to be more than CPED. And while there is no way, short of trying the price change, to know what the PED actually is, a firm may well have sensible ideas about the likelihood of its being significantly greater or less than a specified value. It may seem that calculating the CPED is rather a waste of time, since we should have to calculate the required change in quantity first; and might just as well reckon our chances of getting this volume after our price change, without entering into Elasticity computations at all. However it turns out that there is a very simple formula for calculating the CPED.